HARD POWER – uses treats & punishments
SOFT Power: INFLUENCE, which uses affirmations & encouragements
Influence as the POWER of PERSUASION
An ancient art – More than 2,000 years ago Aristotle outlined a formula on how to become a master of persuasion in his work “Rhetoric”. To be effective, his time-honored principles can be used to make a successful presentation or writing:
Ethos – ‘character,’ Logos – ‘to reason,’ Pathos – ‘suffering’ or ‘experience + Metaphor (verbal beauty) & Brevity. (MORE…. )
Currently: Warren Buffett once told business students that improving their communication skills would boost their professional value by 50% — instantly.
DEF: Persuasion is a communicator’s effort to convince people to change their own attitudes or behaviors about a topic or issue. Changes must come from the listeners themselves, or they have the option to resist persuasion. It can only occur in an atmosphere of free choice, geared to autonomous individuals capable of changing their mind on a subject or of saying ‘No’.
Persuasion is one form of social influence on attitude, & represents the intersection of social thinking in everyday life. It’s symbolic – utilizing words, images, sounds….. verbally & nonverbally via TV, radio, Internet or face-to-face communication.
SAMPLE of Persuasion used to make a major work / company change —>
In a positive environment, employees not only understand why change is necessary, they’ll also be emotionally committed to making it happen, faithfully executing the required steps
TARGETED AT someone’s response to an object or issue:
✫ Attitude – to change someone’s opinion, within a wide range, from negative to positive
✫ Behavior – to change a person’s overt actions
✫ Cognition – a powerful tool to change individuals’ beliefs, which may include defining, interpreting, identifying qualities, observing outcome…. re. something
Rational & emotional appeals
A rational appeal uses logical arguments, even factual evidence, to persuade individuals about the legitimacy of goals & the likelihood of reaching them. Success will depend on the strength & quality of arguments, provided the recipient (Target) is able to process the message correctly.
An emotional appeal is designed to arouse the recipient’s feelings. The most commonly used methods is the fear- or threat-appeal. Even guilt-appeal is considered highly persuasive
This involves 2 major criteria – expertise & trustworthiness. Along with these – physical attractiveness, similarity & non-verbal cues like facial expressions, posture, vocal sounds – all play a subtle role in influencing source-credibility, which can be bolstered by information about the source’s (Agent) background, education, formal training, legitimacy, personal experience…..
This occurs when a person’s thoughts & actions are consciously and unconsciously being affected by other people & groups.
EXP: Advertising, Coercion, Criticism, Enabling, Ethics, Ethnic values, Interpersonal influences, Mass media, Power, Prejudice, Propaganda, Self-brand, Social approval, Social desirability, Social norms, Social values, Superstitions, Taboos.
The effect of these influences can be seen in people’s reactions – in their style of
Conformity, Leadership, Obedience, Peer pressure, Socialization, Social change or Social control
3 broad RESULTS of social influence
• Instrumental Compliance – when people agree with others but hide their opinions. They carry out a request only to get a reward & avoid punishment
• Personal Identification – when people are influenced by someone they like & respect. Target imitates Agent’s attitudes & behaviors to get approval
• Internalization – when a belief or behavior is completely absorbed, being agreed to both publicly & privately. Agent’s requirements fit with the Target’s values, ideas & self-image
Factors AFFECTING social influence
‣ Charisma – the ability to influence people to follow one’s own will. People who have beauty, riches, good jobs… usually have more influence, since these things instill great confidence in others, which boosts their self-esteem
‣ Emotions – Strong emotions have a strong influence. Studies found that narratives trigger a rush of neuro-chemicals in the brain that connects people on a deeper, emotional level
‣ Reputation – This is the credibility factor in determining social influence, which can come from experience, attractiveness, word-of-mouth….
‣ Peer Pressure – People tend to do things they may not be personally interested in, just to keep up positive relationships
‣ Social Trends – They are great carriers of social influence, especially when they are creative & non-conforming, even though they are usually short-lived.
NEXT : Power – Manipulation